Author Topic: 20 command useful in linux/freebsd shell  (Read 3534 times)


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20 command useful in linux/freebsd shell
« on: ธันวาคม 28, 2017, 12:54:34 PM »
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Deleting a HUGE file on Unix like system
I had a huge log file 200GB I need to delete on a production web server. My rm command and ls command was crashed and I was afraid that the system to a crawl with huge disk I/O load. To remove a HUGE file, enter:

> /path/to/file.log
# or use the following syntax
: > /path/to/file.log

# finally delete it
rm /path/to/file.log
Want to cache console output on the CLI?
Try the script command line utility to create a typescript of everything printed on your terminal.

script my.terminal.session
Type commands:

sudo service foo stop
To exit (to end script session) type exit or logout or press control-D

To view type:

more my.terminal.session
less my.terminal.session
cat my.terminal.session
Restoring deleted /tmp folder on Linux
As my journey continues with Linux and Unix shell, I made a few mistakes. I accidentally deleted /tmp folder. To restore it all you have to do is:

mkdir /tmp
chmod 1777 /tmp
chown root:root /tmp
ls -ld /tmp
Locking a directory
For privacy of my data I wanted to lock down /downloads on my file server. So I ran:

chmod 0000 /downloads
The root user can still has access and ls and cd commands will not work. To go back:

chmod 0755 /downloads
Password protecting file in vim text editor
Afraid that root user or someone may snoop into your personal text files? Try password protection to a file in vim, type:

vim +X filename
Or, before quitting in vim use :X vim command to encrypt your file and vim will prompt for a password.

Clear gibberish all over the screen
Just type the following command to fix the display and console gibberish:

## terminal initialization ##
Becoming human
Pass the -h or -H (and other options) command line option to GNU or BSD utilities to get output of command commands like ls command, df command, du command, in human-understandable formats:

ls -lh
# print sizes in human readable format (e.g., 1K 234M 2G)
df -h
df -k
# show output in bytes, KB, MB, or GB
free -b
free -k
free -m
free -g
# print sizes in human readable format (e.g., 1K 234M 2G)
du -h
# get file system perms in human readable format
stat -c %A /boot
# compare human readable numbers
sort -h -a file
# display the CPU information in human readable format on a Linux
lscpu -e
lscpu -e=cpu,node
# Show the  size of each file but in a more human readable way
tree -h
tree -h /boot
Show information about known users in the Linux based system
Just type:

## linux version ##
## *BSD version ##
Sample outputs:

  0 root             0        0   22:37:59 root
  1 bin              0        1            bin
  2 daemon           0        1            daemon
  3 adm              0        1            adm
  4 lp               0        1            lp
  5 sync             0        1            sync
  6 shutdown         0        1 2014-Dec17 shutdown
  7 halt             0        1            halt
  8 mail             0        1            mail
 10 uucp             0        1            uucp
 11 operator         0        1            operator
 12 games            0        1            games
 13 gopher           0        1            gopher
 14 ftp              0        1            FTP User
 27 mysql            0        1            MySQL Server
 38 ntp              0        1           
 48 apache           0        1            Apache
 68 haldaemon        0        1            HAL daemon
 69 vcsa             0        1            virtual console memory owner
 72 tcpdump          0        1           
 74 sshd             0        1            Privilege-separated SSH
 81 dbus             0        1            System message bus
 89 postfix          0        1           
 99 nobody           0        1            Nobody
173 abrt             0        1           
497 vnstat           0        1            vnStat user
498 nginx            0        1            nginx user
499 saslauth         0        1            "Saslauthd user"
How do I fix mess created by accidentally untarred files in the current dir?
So I accidentally untar a tarball in /var/www/html/ directory instead of /home/projects/www/current. It created mess in /var/www/html/. The easiest way to fix this mess:

cd /var/www/html/
/bin/rm -f "$(tar ztf /path/to/file.tar.gz)"
## or better ##
tar ztf /path/to/file.tar.gz | xargs -d'\n' rm -v
Confused on a top command output?
Seriously, you need to try out htop instead of top:

sudo htop
Want to run the same command again?
Just type !!. For example:

/myhome/dir/script/name arg1 arg2
# To run the same command again
## To run the last command again as root user
sudo !!
The !! repeats the most recent command. To run the most recent command beginning with “foo”:

# Run the most recent command beginning with "service" as root
sudo !service
The !$ use to run command with the last argument of the most recent command:

# Edit nginx.conf
sudo vi /etc/nginx/nginx.conf
# Test nginx.conf for errors
/sbin/nginx -t -c /etc/nginx/nginx.conf
# After testing a file with "/sbin/nginx -t -c /etc/nginx/nginx.conf", you
# can edit file again with vi
sudo vi !$
Get a reminder you when you have to leave
If you need a reminder to leave your terminal, type the following command:

leave +hhmm

hhmm – The time of day is in the form hhmm where hh is a time in hours (on a 12 or 24 hour clock), and mm are minutes. All times are converted to a 12 hour clock, and assumed to be in the next 12 hours.
Home sweet home
Want to go the directory you were just in? Run:
cd -

Need to quickly return to your home directory? Enter:

The variable CDPATH defines the search path for the directory containing directories:

export CDPATH=/var/www:/nas10
Now, instead of typing cd /var/www/html/ I can simply type the following to cd into /var/www/html path:

cd html
Editing a file being viewed with less pager
To edit a file being viewed with less pager, press v. You will have the file for edit under $EDITOR:

less *.c
less foo.html
## Press v to edit file ##
## Quit from editor and you would return to the less pager again ##
List all files or directories on your system
To see all of the directories on your system, run find command:

find / -type d | less
# List all directories in your $HOME
find $HOME -type d -ls | less
To see all of the files, run:

find / -type f | less
# List all files in your $HOME
find $HOME -type f -ls | less
Build directory trees in a single command
You can create directory trees one at a time using mkdir command by passing the -p option:

mkdir -p /jail/{dev,bin,sbin,etc,usr,lib,lib64}
ls -l /jail/
Copy file into multiple directories
Instead of running cp command as follows:

cp /path/to/file /usr/dir1
cp /path/to/file /var/dir2
cp /path/to/file /nas/dir3
Run the following command to copy file into multiple dirs:

echo /usr/dir1 /var/dir2 /nas/dir3 |  xargs -n 1 cp -v /path/to/file
Creating a shell function is left as an exercise for the reader

Quickly find differences between two directories
The diff command compare files line by line. It can also compare two directories:

ls -l /tmp/r
ls -l /tmp/s
# Compare two folders using diff ##
diff /tmp/r/ /tmp/s/


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Re: 20 command useful in linux/freebsd shell
« Reply #1 on: ธันวาคม 28, 2017, 01:03:32 PM »
What is the xargs command in UNIX?
The xargs command in UNIX is a command line utility for building an execution pipeline from standard input. Whilst tools like grep can accept standard input as a parameter, many other tools cannot. Using xargs allows tools like echo and rm and mkdir to accept standard input as arguments.

How to use xargs
By default xargs reads items from standard input as separated by blanks and executes a command once for each argument. In the following example standard input is piped to xargs and the mkdir command is run for each argument, creating three folders.

echo 'one two three' | xargs mkdir
one two three
How to use xargs with find
The most common usage of xargs is to use it with the find command. This uses find to search for files or directories and then uses xargs to operate on the results. Typical examples of this are removing files, changing the ownership of files or moving files.

find and xargs can be used together to operate on files that match certain attributes. In the following example files older than two weeks in the temp folder are found and then piped to the xargs command which runs the rm command on each file and removes them.

find /tmp -mtime +14 | xargs rm
xargs v exec {}
The find command supports the -exec option that allows arbitrary commands to be found on files that are found. The following are equivalent.

find ./foo -type f -name "*.txt" -exec rm {} \;
find ./foo -type f -name "*.txt" | xargs rm
So which one is faster? Let’s compare a folder with 1000 files in it.

time find . -type f -name "*.txt" -exec rm {} \;
0.35s user 0.11s system 99% cpu 0.467 total

time find ./foo -type f -name "*.txt" | xargs rm
0.00s user 0.01s system 75% cpu 0.016 total
Clearly using xargs is far more efficient. In fact several benchmarks suggest using xargs over exec {} is six times more efficient.

How to print commands that are executed
The -t option prints each command that will be executed to the terminal. This can be helpful when debugging scripts.

echo 'one two three' | xargs -t rm
rm one two three
How to view the command and prompt for execution
The -p command will print the command to be executed and prompt the user to run it. This can be useful for destructive operations where you really want to be sure on the command to be run. l

echo 'one two three' | xargs -p touch
touch one two three ?...
How to run multiple commands with xargs
It is possible to run multiple commands with xargs by using the -I flag. This replaces occurrences of the argument with the argument passed to xargs. The following prints echos a string and creates a folder.

cat foo.txt

cat foo.txt | xargs -I % sh -c 'echo %; mkdir %'

one two three


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Re: 20 command useful in linux/freebsd shell
« Reply #2 on: ธันวาคม 28, 2017, 01:04:52 PM »
find ./foo -type f -name "*.txt" -exec rm {} \;

find ./foo -type f -name "*.txt" | xargs rm


find ./foo -type f -name "*.txt" | awk '{print "rm " $1}' | sh

อธิบายคือหลังจากค้นหาชื่อไฟล์ที่ มีนามสกุลว่า .txt แล้วก็ให้ลบไฟล์ .txt นั้นซะ
ง่ายๆ เลยแทนที่จะใส่ -exec rm {} \; ที่ใช้งานกับ find parameter ก็ใช้เป็น | xargs rm ได้เลยครับ
หรือถ้าจะอยากเขียนให้ยาวๆหน่อยก็ใช้ awk มาร่วมด้วย เป็น awk '{print "rm " $1}' | sh ต้องใส่ "sh" ด้วยนะครับเพื่อให้ execute คำสั่งในตอนท้าย ก็ใช้กันระวังๆ นะครับสำหรับ rm
« Last Edit: ธันวาคม 28, 2017, 01:06:30 PM by golfreeze »